Thanks for the researched response, Lance.
It’s very rare with iOS. An app might look odd on a new device, but it’s rare that it doesn’t function (with the exception you pointed out, but even there it’s rare that a developer did not update for 64-bit integers). The first apps I wrote were on the iPhone 4s and they still run on an iPhone XS.
OS updates are different: bugs in an OS affect web-based apps as much as they do native apps.
Joel Spolsky wrote in 2004 that web based apps would not replace their desktop alternatives. He was clearly wrong. Yet we still see people preferring to use desktop email and slack clients, native book readers, native messaging apps, native rss readers, etc.